By R. C. Newell (Eds.)
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Extra info for Adaptation to Environment. Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals
Complex effects of temperature and salinity on development have also been described in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi (Costlow and Bookhout, 1968) and in the hermit crabPagurus bernhardus (Roberts, 1971a). An alternative approach to the analysis of the effects of environmental and endogenous factors on survival is to calculate a multiple regression equation which relates each experimental parameter such as body size, experimental salinity, acclimation salinity, experimental temperature, acclimation temperature and exposure time as well as combinations of these factors to an indicator process such as survival or growth (Ralston and Wilf, 1960).
Most intertidal animals are osmotic conformer s (see Chapter 6), but they evade contact with the medium by burrowing (Kinne, 1964) or can close shell valves as in barnacles and bivalves (Krogh, 1939; Freeman and Rigler, 1957). Some exclude the medium by closure of the operculum as in littorinids (Mayes, 1962; Avens and Sleigh, 1965) or by clamping down against the substratum as in Patella (Milne, 1940; Arnold, 1957, 1959), Acmaea (Segal, 1956; Segal and Dehnel, 1962; Wolcott, 1973) and Siphonaria (McAlister and Fisher, 1968), a response which tends 40 A D A P T A T I O N S ΤΟ INTERTIDAL LIFE to exclude short term changes in salinity.
Vernberg, Schlieper and Schneider (1963) showed that the thermal resistance lines for isolated gill pieces from the intertidal bivalves Crassostrea and Modiolus were raised in response to storage at 22-25°C compared with tissue from animals held at 10°C. Tissue from the subtidal bivalve Aequipecten showed no such increase of the thermal tolerance in response to thermal acclimation. Since that time there have been many studies carried out on the heat-lethal temperatures of intact intertidal organisms which show that intraspecific differences in relation to latitudinal and tidal-dependent gradients of environmental temperature can be induced by thermal acclimation.
Adaptation to Environment. Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals by R. C. Newell (Eds.)