By S. Holgate, et. al.
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G. IL13 Genome scans Disease (Atopy/asthma) Map Scan whole genome for linkage or association to markers b Function Determine function of gene in relation to disease Gene Fine mapping of linked region – identify gene Fig. 2 Candidate gene versus genome-wide analysis. (a) In candidate gene analysis genetic variation in a gene selected on the basis of a known (or suspected) role in disease pathogenesis is tested for association with disease. (b) In genome-wide approaches (whether by linkage analysis in families or by genome-wide association studies), genetic variation across the genome is genotyped to identify a genetic region that underlies disease susceptibility.
Both parametric (involving prior specification of a genetic model) and, more commonly in complex disease, non-parametric linkage approaches such as allele sharing can be taken. Allele-sharing methods test whether the inheritance pattern of a particular chromosomal region is inconsistent with random mendelian segregation by showing that pairs of affected relatives inherit identical copies of the region more often than would be expected by chance. Affected sib-pair analysis is the simplest form of allele-sharing analysis.
Affecting gene expression or encoded protein function), or that are selected for maximal information on the basis of linkage disequilibrium patterns surrounding the gene (often termed ‘tagging SNPs’), are then tested for association with the disease or phenotype in question. A hybrid approach is the selection of candidate genes based not only on their function but also on their position within a genetic region previously linked to the disease (positional candidate). However, by definition, the candidate gene approach is not capable of identifying all the major genetic factors predisposing towards a disease or identifying role for novel gene products in disease pathogenesis.
Allergy by S. Holgate, et. al.