New PDF release: Application of muscle/nerve stimulation in health and

By Gerta Vrbová; O Hudlická; Kristin Schaefer Centofanti

ISBN-10: 1402082320

ISBN-13: 9781402082320

ISBN-10: 1402082339

ISBN-13: 9781402082337

The e-book presents crucial details for schools and coaching Centres who supply physiotherapy, good looks treatment and activities technology classes because it explains either the clinical rules and the sensible functions of electrotherapy. It additionally deals precious details for all these attracted to maintaining healthy with electric stimulation, in an more and more sedentary society the place lively workout is tough to Read more...

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Extra resources for Application of muscle/nerve stimulation in health and disease

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3% to the heart as well as to the brain, even if in absolute value the brain receives the same amount of blood as under resting conditions and the heart about three time more. 30 O. Hudlicka While the increase in muscle blood flow during muscle contractions is initiated by many factors, the increase in the cardiac output and its redistribution is due mainly to the higher activity of the nerves which augment the force of the heart contraction and increase heart rate. They also constrict vessels to the organs not involved in exercise such as kidneys and liver.

This is facilitated by increased venous return (that is more blood entering the heart during each diastole due to muscle movements and changes in respiration). Both help to propel the blood back to the heart and increase the filling of the ventricles – an important factor in increasing the force of cardiac muscle contraction. In the long-term, this leads to enlargement of individual muscle cells in the heart and increased heart weight – in other words heart hypertrophy. At the same time the increased force of heart muscle contractions activates some growth factors which are important in stimulating growth of capillaries and larger vessels supplying the heart so that the nutrition of the enlarged heart is well maintained.

As mentioned above, blood flow in skeletal muscles increases with each contraction. This is due to a number of mainly metabolic factors which produce dilatation of the smallest arterioles that spreads towards large vessels. Higher blood flow and higher velocity of red blood cell movement causes a greater friction between the blood and the vessel walls (shear stress) and, in turn, release of substances like NO from the endothelium. 12 Gradually, some of the capillaries are changed into arterioles and the whole vascular bed in trained muscles expands.

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Application of muscle/nerve stimulation in health and disease by Gerta Vrbová; O Hudlická; Kristin Schaefer Centofanti

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