By Harrison, Peter; Wilson, Michael
This publication is a pragmatic consultant to the detection and treatment of faults in claddings and fixings on structures. It units out the issues excited by universal cladding structures for structures, and relates those difficulties to all of the fabrics used: stone, masonry, concrete and glass-reinforced composites
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This ebook is a realistic advisor to the detection and treatment of faults in claddings and fixings on structures. It units out the issues concerned with universal cladding platforms for structures, and relates those difficulties to the entire fabrics used: stone, masonry, concrete and glass-reinforced composites
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Extra info for Appraisal and Repair of Claddings and Fixings
24. Corner support: typical eccentric corner bracket 62 CLADDINGS AND FIXINGS Potential crack j Do not bridge expansion joints Joints coincident Fig. 25. Expansion joint treatment cases it is clear that the method of attachment should be such that the cladding element, the structure and the fixing itself are not subject to over-stress in any combination of load. Supported units should normally only take bearing on two points, and these points, wherever possible, should be equally loaded. The introduction of more points may easily cause an uneven distribution of load, as it is not easy to guarantee three points at a similar bearing level.
The subtrate needs to be completely clean, and this is often a major factor in failures. Whatever the reasons, one should avoid sticking cladding of any description on a building unless a reduced life expectancy is acceptable. 7. 7. Summary Cladding failures may be sudden and may take unexpected forms. The most important thing is that any large cladding contract should be considered at the design stage and should not be left to an inexperienced site-fixing contractor. It is essential that the methods and the sequence of construction be considered from the outset of the design.
There are three primary groups of stone: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Igneous rocks are formed from molten magma of volcanic origin; they include granite, basalt, and diorite. Sedimentary rocks are the result of the disintegration of rocks by weathering and erosion; the resultant deposit is subject 58 CLADDINGS AND FIXINGS to the action of water or air which redeposits them, and the layers eventually harden to form rocks or clays. The principal sedimentary rocks are limestone and sandstone (these rocks have many subdivisions).
Appraisal and Repair of Claddings and Fixings by Harrison, Peter; Wilson, Michael